If you are a beginner in photography, understanding how digital camera works will help you comprehend the basics, and how each of the basic parts relate to each other which will eventually lead to better pictures.
Basically, a digital camera works much the same way as the human eye. The illustration above shows how the light travels from the object until it reaches the sensor.
The rays of lights travel thru the lens first. Lenses are series of curved glasses that bring the light together to form an image.
Then it goes through the aperture which is placed inside the lens. An aperture is an opening that controls how much light reaches the sensor. You can think of aperture as a window.
The shutter, on the other hand, is like a curtain. It controls the length of time that the light fills the room. A shutter is located in front of the sensor.
A sensor is a sensitive plate where light that travels thru the lens, and controlled by the aperture and shutter, is absorbed and transformed into pixels.
Once an image is processed, digital cameras store the digital representation of a subject onto a memory card where images are ready to be downloaded into a computer as digital files.
Now that you understand how a digital camera basically absorbs an image of an object, understand how the lens, aperture, and shutter works to get the maximum result of the images captured.